THEODOSIUS II°

THEODOSIUS II° (Flavius Theodosius Junior), Roman emperor of the East, 408–450 C.E. Theodosius II edited the first official collection of the imperial statutes from the time of Constantine to the year 438, the year of publication of the Theodosian Code (C. Th.). The Code was accepted and published by Emperor Valentinian III also in the West, where it enjoyed wide circulation. The Jews are dealt with particularly in chapters 8 and 9 of book 16: ("De Judaeis, Caelicolis, et Samaritanis"; "Ne Christianum mancipium Judaeus habeat"). The reign of Theodosius II marks a serious deterioration in the position of the Jews. His first law, of May 408, is directed against the feast of Purim, since it was believed that the Jews then burned images of the cross (C. Th. 16:8, 18). In 415 the patriarch Gamaliel was deposed (C. Th. 16:8, 22); construction of new synagogues was forbidden and destruction of the existing ones ordered, provided this did not result in disorder. The office of patriarch disappeared in the subsequent years, and in 429 the emperor took advantage of this by imposing a new tax which was to be paid by the community (a much easier and safer system for the treasury; C. Th. 16:8, 29; see honorius ). Nevertheless, Judaism was proclaimed a tolerated cult in 423 (C. Th. 16:8, 26), provided it did not offend the Christian religion. Synagogues were protected, the reconstruction of synagogues that had been destroyed was ordered, and observance of the Sabbath was permitted (C. Th. 16:8, 10, 25, 27). However, in 438 an important statute was issued in which the Jews were defined as "enemies of the Roman laws and of the supreme majesty." Consequently they were forbidden to hold any high office, military or civil, and they lost all jurisdiction over Christians; the prohibition to build new synagogues was reinstituted, and the destruction of those that were unsafe was ordered. Jews, however, were not to be exempted from the burdensome curial offices. The civil inferiority of the Jews and discrimination against them were thus legally sanctioned. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Juster, Juifs, 1 (1914), 162–6, 237; 2 (1914), 101–3; F. Nau, in: REJ, 83 (1927), 184–206; C. Pharr et al. (eds. and trs.), The Theodosian Code (1952); Baron, Social2, index; J. Gaudemet, L'Eglise dans l'Empire Romain (1958), 623ff.; M. Simon, Verus Israel (Fr., 19642) J.W. Parkes, Conflict of the Church and the Synagogue (1964). (Alfredo Mordechai Rabello)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Theodosius I. — Theodosius I. Theodosius I. (griechisch Θεοδόσιος A , eigentlich Flavius Theodosius), auch bekannt als Theodosius der Große (* 11. Januar 347 in Cauca, Spanien; † 17. Januar 395 in Mailand), war …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Theodosius II. — Theodosius II. (griechisch Θεοδόσιος Β , * April 401; † 28. Juli 450), einziger Sohn der Aelia Eudoxia und des Arcadius, wurde siebenjährig oströmischer Kaiser. Im Codex Theodosianus ließ er die Gesetze und Verfügungen der römischen Kaiser… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Theodosius I — • Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 January, 395 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Theodosius I     Theodosius I    …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Theodosius — (from the Greek Θεοδόσιος , Giver of God ) is a name which might refer to one of several people:* One of three emperors of ancient Rome and Byzantium: ** Theodosius I (347 ndash;395; Theodosius the Great ), son of Count Theodosius ** Theodosius… …   Wikipedia

  • Theodosius — ist unter anderem der Name dreier römischer bzw. byzantinischer Kaiser: Theodosius I., der Große (347–395, oströmischer Kaiser, letzter Kaiser des Gesamtreiches), Theodosius II. (401–450, oströmischer Kaiser), Theodosius III. (715–717,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Theodosius — Theodosius,   römischer (oströmischer) Kaiser:    1) Theodosius I., der Große, römische Kaiser (seit 383, Mitkaiser seit 379), * Cauca (heute Coca) 11. 1. 347, ✝ Mediolanum (heute Mailand) 17. 1. 395, Großvater von 2). Durch Gratian 379 zum… …   Universal-Lexikon

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  • THEODOSIUS I° — THEODOSIUS I°, Roman emperor, 379–395 C.E. Although Theodosius, an orthodox Christian, was responsive to the influence of the church, he subordinated it to his authority. During his reign, and in the reigns of his sons Arcadius and honorius , the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • THEODOSIUS — THEODOSIUS, spokesman for the Samaritan community of alexandria in the second century B.C.E. During the reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor (180–145 B.C.E.) a dispute arose between the Jews and Samaritans of Alexandria. The quarrel centered around the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Theodosius I — [thē΄ə dō′shəs, thē΄dō′shē əs] ( Flavius Theodosius) A.D. 346? 395; Rom. general: emperor of Rome (379 395): called the Great Theodosian adj …   English World dictionary

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